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  • Diagnosis, stages, and prevention of heart diseases

    Heart disease is a serious health condition, and it is also one of the main causes of death in the country. Irrespective of what kind of heart-related issue one has, they can be diagnosed with the help of certain tests. Once these are carried out, and a proper diagnosis is arrived at, the heart specialist, also known as a cardiologist, treats the condition accordingly.

    Diagnosis of heart diseases

    Heart-related conditions can be diagnosed via chest X-ray and blood tests. However, these are not the only available options that doctors use to determine the cause of the problems. Here is a list of some common tests that are also an option.

    • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
    • Holter monitoring
    • Echocardiogram
    • Stress test
    • Cardiac catheterization
    • Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan
    • Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Different stages of heart failure

    Heart failure is a heart disease with different types and stages. There are mainly four stages known as A, B, C, and D. Stage A exposes one to the risk of heart failure. It can develop due to family history, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol abuse, coronary artery disease, and metabolic syndrome, among others. Stage B is more serious, as one starts to develop pre-heart failure conditions. During this stage, systolic left ventricular dysfunction occurs, which can lead to heart failure in the future.

    Stage C is when one is first diagnosed with heart failure. The various symptoms of this stage include shortness of breath, fatigue, inability to exercise, weakening of legs, waking up for urination regularly, and swelling in the abdomen, lower legs, feet, and ankles. Stage D is the last stage of this heart disease wherein the patient shows advanced symptoms of this health condition. The symptoms of this stage do not respond to medical treatments.

    Prevention of heart disease

    People who have a history of heart disease in their family are more likely to develop certain heart conditions themselves. On the positive side, one can do various things to keep their heart-healthy. Below is a list of things that can be done to prevent heart-related issues.

    • Keep the blood pressure under control
      People who have high blood pressure are more likely to develop heart conditions. It is essential for one to get their blood pressure checked at least once a year. If the doctor prescribes medicines and lifestyle changes, these must be followed accordingly.
    • Control the cholesterol level
      Coronary artery disease is a serious heart condition, which is a result of clogged arteries. If one can keep their cholesterol levels under control, they immediately lower the chances of developing heart diseases. This can be successfully done with medicine and lifestyle changes.
    • Follow a healthy diet:
      There is no better way to prevent heart diseases than maintaining a healthy diet. Food items that are high in sugar, sodium, and saturated fat should be avoided. One’s diet should include whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. The right diet not only keeps the heart healthy, but it also helps one prevent blood pressure and high cholesterol.

    Other than these, maintaining overall good health also helps to prevent heart diseases. One can achieve this by exercising regularly, getting enough sleep, and stopping smoking or drinking alcohol.

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  • A guide on STDs – Types, diagnosis, and prevention

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections, which are capable of transmitting from one person to another, mostly due to sexual contact. These sexual conditions are actually more common than you may think. In fact, sometimes you may not be aware of having an STD, as it may not have any symptoms. The STDs come in many forms but most of them can be easily treated.

    Types of STDs

    There are multiple types of STDs. The most common forms are:

    • Chlamydia
      It is a very common form of bacterial infection, but it is easy to treat.
    • Genital warts
      It is caused by the human papillomavirus and results in growths around the anus and in the genital region.
    • Gonorrhea
      It is caused by a bacterial infection. It may not have any symptoms but can be treated easily.
    • Molluscum contagiosum
      This is an infection, which results in tiny bumps on the skin. It generally goes away on its own.
    • Hepatitis B
      It is a type of virus and can result in liver disease.
    • Herpes
      It is a common form of STD, which causes sores on genitals or in the mouth. The symptoms can be treated but there is no cure for herpes.
    • HIV
      It is one of the most serious forms of STD that attacks your immune system and can result in AIDS. You can remain healthy even with HIV if you follow the right treatment plan.
    • Syphilis
      It is a bacterial infection. Even though it is easy to treat, untreated syphilis can become dangerous.


    The most effective way to avoid any sexual conditions is to get tested for STDs regularly. A few laboratory tests can easily detect STDs. The advanced stages of syphilis and HIV can be detected using blood tests while most other forms of STDs can be detected in urine samples. If you have certain STD-related infections, which cause sores on the genitals, the doctor can diagnose it by collecting fluid samples from the body.

    Apart from the tests, it is also suggested that you opt for regular screenings, even if you do not have any symptoms of STD. This is the best way to safeguard yourself against suffering from untreated STDs. These screenings are especially performed on young people who are sexually active, people born between the years 1945 to 1965, people who have HIV, and pregnant women.

    Prevention of STD

    It is not too hard to prevent sexual conditions if you practice safe sex and be careful about the transmission. The latex condoms are the strongest shields against any form of STD and you must always use them during sex. Sharing underwear or even towels with a person, who has any form of STD, can also result in a sexual condition, hence it must be avoided. You should also wash your body thoroughly after sex every time. Some STDs like hepatitis B can be completely avoided with vaccination. You should ask your doctor about it. Also, if you are sexually active, you must get tested for HIV regularly.

    If you are ever diagnosed with any form of sexual conditions, the right thing to do is to stop having sex until you are treated. This way you can prevent it from spreading and ensure that others are not infected because of you.

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  • A guide to the various stages and types of sleep disorders

    Getting a good amount of sleep is fundamental to our health. Not getting sufficient sleep can have a grave effect on our physical and mental health. While most of us may not sleep simply because we are watching a show, there are some people who suffer from sleep disorders and cannot help it.

    Stages of human sleep
    Any kind of disturbance in the period or quality of sleep is known as a sleep disorder. Human sleep can be explained in the following stages:

    • Stage 1
      This stage is called non-rapid eye movement sleep.
    • Stage 2
      This stage is the second stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep. It constitutes half of your sleep.
    • Stages 3 and 4
      These stages see the person most deep in sleep and they account for approximately 10 to 20 percent of the sleeping period. They occur during the first half of the duration of sleep.
    • Stage 5
      This stage is called the rapid eye movement stage (REM). It is in the stage that we see dreams.

    The amount of time each person spends in each stage will differ as per their age.

    Types of sleep disorders
    Now let us take a look at some of the main types of sleep disorders:

    • Insomnia
      In insomnia, a person is unable to fall asleep. It is mainly caused due to stress. Insomnia may be chronic or transient.
    • Parasomnias
      Parasomnias refer to unusual movements that may occur during sleep. Common examples are sleepwalking, sleeptalking, and bedwetting.
    • Apnea
      This is a very serious disorder wherein the person suffering from it suddenly stops breathing while sleeping. This leads to disturbed sleep, as each time the person keeps getting breathless, they wake up from their sleep.
    • Narcolepsy
      A person suffering from narcolepsy will suddenly fall asleep. This could be during any normal activity. For instance, a person suffering from narcolepsy can fall asleep while working or reading a book. Narcolepsy can also lead to sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis is a condition where a person will find themselves paralyzed when they wake up.

    Diagnosis of sleep disorders
    If you have sleeping disorders, your doctor will ask you questions related to your health and inquire whether you have any symptoms for sleep disorders. Post this, your doctor will conduct the following tests:

    • Sleep study
      This test examines movements in the body, oxygen levels, and brain waves when the person is asleep.
    • Electroencephalogram
      This test evaluates the brain’s electrical movements.
    • Blood tests
      Certain sleeping disorders may be diagnosed with the help of blood tests.

    Prevention of sleep disorders
    It is always best to get medical help to treat sleeping disorders. But you can take certain steps to prevent this condition, such as

    • Do not drink caffeine in the evening
    • Exercise daily
    • Maintain regular sleep timings
    • Do not sleep in the afternoon
    • Do not eat a heavy dinner
    • Take a bath before dinner and sleeping will help you feel clean and relaxed

    Now that you have a fair idea about sleep disorders, it is recommended that you follow the aforementioned preventive measures to ensure that you do not suffer from this problem in the future.

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  • Stages, diagnosis, and prevention of Parkinson’s disease

    Parkinson’s disease affects the nervous system. Some of the common symptoms of this disease include rigidity in the muscles, slowing down of movements, stooped posture, and hand tremors, among others. Parkinson’s disease sets in at different stages of a person’s life. Let us understand more about this disease to keep you informed.

    Here are the five stages of Parkinson’s disease:

    • Stage 1
      The first stage of Parkinson’s disease has very mild symptoms. Only very close family members may notice changes in your movement. Also, body tremors may be restricted to one side of the body.
    • Stage 2
      The symptoms increase at this stage. Patients experience more tremors and stiffness. Also, the symptoms may extend to both sides of the body.
    • Stage 3
      Stage 3 sees the worsening of Stage 2 symptoms. An additional symptom is that at this stage the patient begins to lose balance. But they can still live by themselves.
    • Stage 4
      A patient with Stage 4 Parkinson’s does not have the capability to live by themself. They might require assistance to move around.
    • Stage 5
      This is the most severe stage of Parkinson’s disease. A patient suffering at this stage cannot even stand on their own. They may even suffer from hallucinations and dementia. Patients can only move around in a wheelchair and require supervision and round-the-clock care.

    There are no specific medical tests for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. The disease is diagnosed through a thorough evaluation of your medical history as well as an examination of your symptoms. In addition to this examination, your doctor will also have to rule out other diseases. For this, your doctor will conduct a range of tests including CT scans, blood tests, and MRI scans. These are done to ensure that your symptoms are not caused by other diseases. The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease is a slow and gradual process. You may require several visits to the doctor and neurologist to get the correct diagnosis.

    There are no known cures for Parkinson’s disease. Managing the symptoms is a top priority. However, some research does indicate that we can prevent Parkinson’s disease. So, let us take a look at some of these effective tips:

    • Eat nutritious food
      Certain studies show that consuming folic acid can lower your chances of getting Parkinson’s disease. Folic acid is found in spinach, asparagus, and broccoli. Certain other studies show that an increased intake of vitamin D also helps in preventing Parkinson’s disease and dementia.
    • Increased intake of green tea
      Green tea has a healthy impact on dopamine, which helps to promote healthy brain function. Additionally, green tea is also known to be anti-inflammatory in nature.
    • Exercise frequently
      Studies show that frequent exercise is good for physical health as well as mental health, thus resulting in the overall well-being of an individual. Exercise has also known to lower the risk of Parkinson’s disease.
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  • Understanding the essentials about menopause

    Menopause is a stage at which the woman stops going through menstrual cycles. It is only considered menopause if you have not had your period for at least 12 months. In the US, the average age for it to occur is 51, but it can start as early as your 40s. It is a biological process that occurs naturally but, due to certain symptoms it causes, it can lead to disruptions in your daily schedule and life.

    Stages of menopause

    Menopause has three different stages, as given below.

    • Perimenopause

    Before the actual menopause starts, the women’s body goes into the process of shifting from natural menstruation and ovulation cycle to permanent infertility. This stage is known as perimenopause. It generally starts in your 40s, but some women may experience it in their 30s too. The symptoms include irregular periods, sleep problems, and hot flashes.

    • Menopause

    If you have not had your period in one year, then the perimenopause is over, and the actual menopause stage begins. You cannot get pregnant once you enter this stage.

    • Postmenopause

    The years that follow are the postmenopause stage. The physical and emotional symptoms of menopause start to subside in most cases. You start to regain your energy levels and feel more emotionally stable. However, as the estrogen level in your body decreases, you will be more vulnerable to diseases like osteoporosis, bladder and vaginal changes, and heart disease.


    If you reach the right age for menopause and start to experience the symptoms, then it could be a sign that you are already menopausal. Generally, hot flashes and irregular periods are clear signs of it. However, you may contact your doctor for additional confirmation. Your gynecologist will collect your blood sample to check the estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Decreased estrogen and increased FSH levels indicate the stage you are at. The doctor will also test for the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH disorder can lead to similar symptoms as those of menopause, making it is necessary to rule that out. You can also use the home kits for an FSH test. However, they may not always be conclusive. The menstrual cycle can cause a change in FSH levels too.

    Managing menopause symptoms

    Menopause is a natural part of life and it cannot be prevented. However, you can manage the symptoms, so you do not have to suffer due to any related complications. The decrease in estrogen levels can result in weight gain, which causes a variety of other health issues. Hence, you must be careful with your diet to keep the weight under control. Eat healthy food, including fresh fruits and vegetables regularly, and make sure to eat when you feel hungry and not when you feel lazy. Also, avoid processed food and foods that are rich in sugar.

    Being physically active is also important, during this time, to remain healthy. You should exercise regularly, including moderately intense aerobics for at least 150 minutes a week. Maintaining your bone strength is another effective way to stay healthy during menopause. Following a vitamin D and calcium-rich diet can help with the same.

    Keep in mind that the key to remaining healthy during the years of postmenopause is taking good care of your overall health.

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  • Important things to know about kidney and liver-related diseases

    The kidney and liver are two important organs in your body. You must keep them healthy to maintain a happy and safe life. However, you should also be aware of some important facts about the liver and kidney-related diseases so that you can visit your doctor before any health-related issue becomes more serious.

    Kidney and liver diseases and stages

    Chronic kidney disease is a medical condition that affects your kidneys. However, it progresses in five different stages and usually does not affect both the kidneys at once. Before learning about the stages of this illness, you need to first understand what Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is. The age, gender, race, and serum creatinine are taken into account to calculate a person’s GFR, which determines the stage of chronic kidney disease. The serum creatinine is a type of waste product, which comes from the body’s muscle activity. As the condition of your kidney worsens, it filters less and less creatinine. The GFR calculation uses this to determine the kidney condition.

    • Stage 1: GFR > 90 ml/min
    • Stage 2: GFR = 60-89 ml/min
    • Stage 3A: GFR = 45-59 ml/min
    • Stage 3B: GFR = 30-44 ml/min
    • Stage 4: GFR = 15-29 ml/min
    • Stage 5: GFR <15 ml/min

    When it comes to the liver, the diseases and damage can occur due to genetics, alcohol abuse, or infection. It can lead to liver failure. It is a very serious condition that can lead to death. Liver failure happens in five stages.

    • Inflammation: The liver gets enlarged
    • Fibrosis: Healthy tissues are replaced by scar tissues
    • Cirrhosis: Severe level of scarring occurs and the kidney starts to fail
    • End-stage liver disease (ESLD): The liver is irreversibly damaged and requires a transplant
    • Liver cancer: The unhealthy cells start to multiply


    The issue related to the kidney and liver can be diagnosed with medical tests. Diagnosis for chronic kidney disease involves multiple tests like blood, urine, imaging, and testing kidney tissue by collecting a sample. These tests can determine the amount of waste present in your blood, the cause of the kidney disease, and the health of the kidney tissues.

    The diagnosis of liver failure can be done using similar tests. Blood tests are done to determine if your liver is functioning properly, imaging is used to understand the cause of your liver-related issues or if the liver is damaged, and liver tissue tests can help understand why your liver is failing.


    The kidney and liver diseases can be prevented by taking good care of your health. Some of the most effective ways to keep your kidney healthy are to drink enough water, eat healthily and lower the amount of snacking, exercise regularly, stop smoking and drinking, get seven-eight hours of sleep, and keep diabetes, heart disease, and blood pressure under control. On the other hand, to lower the chances of liver failure, you should get a hepatitis B vaccination, avoid alcohol, stay active, maintain a healthy weight, never take medicines more than the prescribed amount, and visit your doctor for yearly physical examinations.

    By following these instructions thoroughly, you can maintain good kidney and liver health and lead a long, happy life.

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  • Common signs of pregnancy

    From fatigue to nausea and weight gain, several symptoms can indicate pregnancy. The entire pregnancy can last for about 40 weeks, and for some women, it may even sound scary. Having said that, understanding the symptoms of pregnancy and what to expect during this period can help make this period smooth and comfortable for women.

    Common symptoms of pregnancy

    Among the first things women should know are the signs that can help them understand that they are pregnant. Although the symptoms of pregnancy may differ among women, here’s a list of the most common ones:

    • A missed menstrual cycle: The most common and among the earliest signs of a pregnancy is a missed menstrual cycle. However, this is not a sure sign as irregular or delayed menstrual cycles can also be a result of ill health.
    • Tender breasts: Tender and sensitive breasts can also be a sign of pregnancy as they are caused by hormonal changes that occur during the early stages of pregnancy.
    • Nausea and vomiting: Nausea is a common symptom of pregnancy, and it generally starts a month after a woman conceives. However, it may occur earlier for some women, while others may not develop this symptom at all. This symptom is commonly known as morning sickness, but women may experience it at any time of the day.
    • Increased urination: Increased urination is another common symptom of pregnancy as a result of increased blood flow in a woman’s body. This leads to the kidneys working overtime to process more fluid and eliminate toxins, which increases the urge to urinate among pregnant women.
    • Fatigue: Exhaustion and fatigue are among the most common signs of pregnancy. The production of progesterone increases significantly among women during the early stages of pregnancy, which causes fatigue and sleepiness.

    Other than these symptoms, pregnancy may lead to bloating, mood swings, cramping, constipation, and sudden dislike for certain foods among women, even to the extent of throwing up at their sight or smell.

    Stages of pregnancy
    The stages of pregnancy are known as trimesters. By the 12th week, the baby starts developing muscles and nerves, along with the head. The second trimester lasts from week 13th to 28th, and the bone marrow of the baby starts creating blood cells during this time. Also, fingerprints and footprints form, the hair on the baby’s head starts growing, and the baby grows to around 12 inches long in the second trimester. In the third trimester, the organs of the baby start functioning on their own.

    Prevention of unwanted pregnancy
    Several birth control methods can be used by women with an active sex life if they do not wish to conceive. The most common contraceptive methods are condoms, cervical caps, oral contraceptive pills, and IUDs.

    If a woman notices any of these symptoms of pregnancy, she must take a pregnancy test. Modern home pregnancy tests can give a 99%-accurate result, but visiting a doctor can help women get a confirmation. The urine or blood test performed by a medical professional can confirm a pregnancy.

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  • Weight management for obesity – Stages, diagnosis, and prevention

    Obesity is one of the most common medical problems in the country, and almost one-third of the adult population of the country requires weight management. Technically, if an adult who is over the age of 35 years has a BMI of 30 or more, they will be considered obese.

    Let’s take a look at the stages of obesity weight management and how to diagnose and prevent it.

    Stages of obesity

    There are broadly six stages of obesity weight management.

    • Denial
      This is the first step of any behavioral issue, but the fact is that there is a mathematical calculation for the ideal weight and one for obesity as well. Thus, it is not a subjective matter, and one can clearly understand that there is a reason for action if the weight goes above the ideal weight.
    • Decision
      Even after realizing that the weight is off the scale, it takes time for people to register the next steps. Whether one wants to maneuver eating habits or increase exercise every day, people take time to implement plans.
    • Action
      The weight management phase starts here. This is an inclusive action and it is not limited to only eating healthy or working out. One must eat well, exercise regularly, cut down on bad habits, maintain a healthy sleeping schedule, and various other things to keep oneself from obesity.
    • Reaching the goal
      Getting to the goal might seem difficult at first, but the weight management journey gets easier as you see the results. Soon enough, it becomes a habit and not just an activity that you’re keeping track of.
    • Maintenance
      It’s not enough to just reach the goal; staying there is equally important. You cannot begin to deviate from the diet plans once the goal is reached.
    • Acceptance
      The last phase is an acceptance that this is a long journey, and not a goal-to-goal activity. One must keep eating healthy and exercising throughout your life to stay healthy.

    Diagnosis of obesity for weight management

    Obesity is fairly easy to diagnose. Any person having a BMI of more than 30 is considered obese. Body Mass Index is a number that establishes a relation between a person’s height, weight, and age. Apart from this, there are several other factors that determine obesity, and on which basis the condition can be diagnosed. These include skinfold thickness and waist-to-hip comparisons. Further, there are tests including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and MRI scans that can further help a doctor determine obesity in a patient.

    Prevention of obesity with weight management

    Beyond the cosmetic repercussions of obesity, there are many chronic issues that one might face if one is obese. Several diseases and conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, and some serious heart problems can arise due to obesity. Further, obesity also becomes a risk factor for multiple types of cancers. To avoid the risk of obesity, every individual must always maintain a healthy diet and regular fitness activity so that there are no health issues in the long run.

    There are three main factors affecting the risk of obesity including genetics, environment and community, and psychological and other such factors. While genetics has a direct correlation and there’s no absolute way of preventing obesity due to genetics, the activity level of an individual can be increased for weight management. Further, one must find solutions to depression and other emotional problems before it translates into obesity. Apart from these, a sure-fire way for weight management and obesity prevention is eating less unhealthy food.

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  • Understanding anemia, a blood disorder

    Many different forms of blood disorders can affect the human body. These disorders can affect the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Certain disorders can also affect plasma. The development of the diseases and their treatments depend on what kind of disorder one has. One of the most common illnesses is anemia, which affects red blood cells.

    Types of anemia

    Anemia causes a decrease in the number of red blood cells, which leads to pale skin, fatigue, and breathing difficulties. There are many different kinds of anemia.

    • Iron-deficiency anemia

    This kind of anemia is caused due to a deficiency of iron in the body, which is necessary for the production of red blood cells. This can be caused by low iron intake and loss of blood.

    • Chronic disease influenced anemia

    Chronic diseases like a kidney disorder can result in anemia, too. Some people require treatment to improve blood cell production.

    • Pernicious anemia

    People with autoimmune disorders or weak stomach linings may suffer from this type of anemia. One cannot absorb enough B12 from their diet, which results in this deficiency.

    • Aplastic anemia

    This is one of the blood disorders that results when the bone marrow fails to produce enough red cells and other blood cells.

    • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    An immune system disorder can destroy the red blood cells in the body, which causes anemia.

    • Thalassemia

    This is a genetic form of anemia that may not even result in any symptoms for most people while others may require regular blood transfusions.

    • Polycythemia vera

    This is a condition that results in the uncontrollable production of blood cells. It can cause blood clots in some cases.

    Diagnosis of anemia

    If suffering from any blood disorders, like anemia, and one notices its symptoms, the doctor will inquire about one’s family and medical history. After a physical examination, certain tests will be conducted as well.

    • Complete blood count (CBC)

    A blood sample is collected from the body to measure the blood cell count. The red blood cell counts found from the report will indicate if one has anemia.

    • Red blood cell test

    A red blood cell test is also done to examine its color, size, and shape.

    If the tests show that one has anemia, then the doctor will perform additional tests to determine the cause of the condition. Generally, the bone marrow is analyzed for this.

    Preventing blood disorders

    Not all kinds of anemia can be prevented. However, according to the National Women’s Health Information Center, one can take certain preventive measures to avoid this condition. Adding iron-rich food items in one’s daily diet surely is an effective way to keep anemia at bay. Some foods that are rich in iron are tofu, green vegetables, lentils, and beans. Additionally, include food and drinks that are high in vitamin C and include folic acid and vitamin B12, too.

    There are available treatments for blood disorders that can cure the disease or manage it. Hence, it is important to go for regular health checkups to make sure that it is diagnosed on time.

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  • Cancer – Its stages, diagnosis, and prevention

    Cancer is a disease caused by the growth of malignant cells in the body. The formation of cells can happen anywhere, from the brain to the pancreas. Several cancerous cells clustered together form a tumor. The tumor then grows in size, spreading to other parts as well. Some cancers we know of are fatal, while some can be cured with the help of surgery, chemotherapy, and other such procedures.

    Let’s take a look at the stages, diagnosis, and prevention.

    Stages of cancer

    There are different stages of cancer that are classified to understand how far it has spread and the degree of treatment that may be required. Based on this, there are two bases for differentiation.

    Based on the numbered system, there are 4 stages.

    • Stage 0 cancer

    In this stage, the cancer cells are restricted to the area of origin and they’ve not spread to any other part.

    • Stage 1 cancer

    Here, the cancer cells spread to the nearby areas, but not to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

    • Stage 2 and 3 cancer

    This indicates that cancer has spread to nearby areas as well as lymph nodes.

    • Stage 4 cancer

    Cancer has spread to other parts of the body. This stage is also known as the advanced stage of cancer.

    In the TNM system, there are three categories:

    • T – tumor
    • N – lymph nodes
    • M – metastases

    There is a score attached to each of these categories to indicate how far cancer has spread. Thus, one gets to know, specific to each stage, how far cancer has progressed.

    Diagnosis of cancer

    Cancer is diagnosed by experts who examine and understand the cells and tissues under a microscope. Tests are performed on the proteins of the cells as well as the DNA and RNA to understand if there is cancer. The best possible treatment options can only be chosen by examining the cells well and understanding the level to which cancer has spread.

    Several times, the doctor might also spot other infections that may seem like cancer at first but are not. The procedure of taking out a small part of the lump for testing is known as biopsy and the process is also often referred to as pathology.

    Prevention of cancer

    There are some straightforward methods to prevent the occurrence of cancer or to delay the onset. What science knows about the presence and prevention of cancer is still limited. However, based on the known facts, here’s what can be done to prevent cancer.

    • Do not use tobacco
    • Maintain a healthy diet
    • Maintain a healthy weight without sudden fluctuations
    • Protect yourself from the sun to avoid skin cancer
    • Get a vaccine, which will protect you from different types of infections like Hepatitis B, HPV, and the like.
    • Practice safe sex
    • Get regular health check-ups done
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